On This Date In 1777 The Battle of Millstone, also known as the Battle of Van Nest's Mill, was a skirmish that occurred near the mill of Abraham Van Nest (in present-day Manville, New Jersey) during the American Revolutionary War. A British foraging party was flanked and driven off by forces composed mostly of New Jersey militia, depriving the British of their wagons and supplies.
On This Date In 1825 The Treaty of Washington City was a treaty proclaimed on February 19, 1825, and signed on January 20, 1825, between the Choctaw (an American Indian tribe) and the United States Government, in which the Choctaw Nation ceded land to the United States in return for annual payments, as well as other accommodations.
On This Date In 1828 Sarah Lincoln Grigsby (February 10, 1807 - January 20, 1828), elder sister of the future president Abraham Lincoln, died while giving birth to a boy, who also died that day. Sarah's gravesite is located within what is now known as Lincoln State Park in Indiana.
On This Date In 1841 During the First Opium War, China ceded the island of Hong Kong to the British with the signing of the Chuenpi Convention, an agreement seeking an end to the first Anglo-Chinese conflict.
On This Date In 1863 During the American Civil War, Union General Ambrose Burnside's Army of the Potomac began an offensive against General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia that quickly bogged down as several days of heavy rain turned the roads of Virginia into a muddy quagmire. The campaign was abandoned three days later.
On This Date In 1887 During the reign of Hawaiian King Kalākaua the United States was granted exclusive rights to enter Pearl Harbor and to establish “a coaling and repair station.” On January 20, 1887, the United States Senate allowed the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base (the US took possession on November 9 that year). The Spanish-American War of 1898 and the desire for the United States to have a permanent presence in the Pacific both contributed to the decision.
On This Date In 1909 Newly formed automaker General Motors bought into the Oakland Motor Car Corporation, which later became GM's long-running Pontiac division.
On This Date In 1918 During World War I, British and German forces clash in the Aegean Sea when the German battleships Goeben and Breslau attempt a surprise raid on Allied forces off the Dardanelle Straits.
On This Date In 1937 Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first U.S. president sworn into office in January. It was his second of four inaugurations; the first had been held fours years earlier on March 4, 1933. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan20.html
On This Date In 1941 U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office for the third time as Europe and Asia engaged in war. FDR is the only chief executive to serve more than two terms. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes on the East Portico of the Capitol. The Roosevelts hosted a reception for several thousand visitors at the White House later that day. http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres51.html
On This Date In 1942 The Wannsee Conference, a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, was held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee. The purpose of the conference was to inform administrative leaders of Departments responsible for various policies relating to Jews, that Reinhard Heydrich had been appointed as the chief executor of the “Final solution to the Jewish question,” and to obtain their full support. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/holocaust/h-wannsee.htm
On This Date In 1945 The fourth inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt as the 32nd President of the United States was held. The inauguration marked the commencement of the fourth term (which lasted approximately three months) of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President and the only term (which also lasted approximately three months) of Harry S. Truman as Vice President.
On This Date In 1949 President Harry S. Truman went to the East Portico of the U.S. Capitol to take the oath of office on two Bibles—the personal one he had used for the first oath on April 12, 1945, upon the death of President Roosevelt, and a Gutenberg Bible donated by the citizens of Independence, Missouri. The ceremony was televised as well as broadcast on the radio. http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres53.html
On This Date In 1953 The inauguration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower took place. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Frederick Vinson on two Bibles—the one used by George Washington at the first inauguration, and the one General Eisenhower received from his mother upon his graduation from the Military Academy at West Point. A large parade followed the ceremony, and inaugural balls were held at the National Armory and Georgetown University's McDonough Hall. http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres54.html
On This Date In 1961 President John F. Kennedy distinguished his inaugural ceremony with a poetry reading by fellow New Englander Robert Frost. Blinded by the sun's glare on the snow-covered Capitol grounds, Frost found himself unable to read the poem he had prepared. Instead, he recited “The Gift Outright” from memory, his words moving many. “Dedication,” the poem Frost intended to read at the Kennedy inauguration, is featured in Words and Deeds in American History. “The Gift Outright” can be found in the Imagination section of the Library's American Treasures exhibition.
On This Date In 1965 President Lyndon Baines Johnson was joined by Mrs. Johnson on the platform on the East Front of the Capitol for his inauguration; she was the first wife to stand with her husband as he took the oath of office. The oath was administered by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Leontyne Price sang at the ceremony.
On This Date In 1967 “Between the Buttons,” the fifth British and seventh American studio album by The Rolling Stones, was released in the United Kingdom and on February 11, 1967 in the United States as the follow-up to the ambitious Aftermath. Between the Buttons is seen as the beginning of the Stone's first complete departure from their R&B roots and the beginning of their brief foray into psychedelia.
On This Date In 1969 An almost-winner of the 1960 election, and a close winner of the 1968 election, the former Vice President and California Senator and Congressman Richard M. Nixon was inaugurated as the 37th President of the United States. Chief Justice Earl Warren administered the oath of office for the fifth time. The President addressed the large crowd from a pavilion on the East Front of the Capitol. The address was televised by satellite around the world.
On This Date In 1972 During the Vietnam War, and in continued efforts to disrupt an anticipated communist offensive, a contingent of more than 10,000 South Vietnamese troops began a sweep 45 miles northwest of Saigon to find and destroy enemy forces.
On This Date In 1973 The second inauguration of Richard Nixon as the 37th President of the United States was held. The inauguration marked the commencement of the second term (which lasted approximately one and a half years) of Richard Nixon as President and the second term (which lasted approximately nine months) of Spiro Agnew as Vice President. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger administered the Oath of office to both President and Vice President.
On This Date In 1977 The inauguration of Jimmy Carter as the 39th President of the United States was held. The inauguration marked the commencement of the four-year term of Jimmy Carter as President and Walter Mondale as Vice President and also marked the end of a shortened term served by Carter's predecessor, Gerald Ford. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger administered the Oath of office to Jimmy Carter, and House Speaker Tip O'Neill administered the Oath of office to Walter Mondale. This was the last inauguration that was set up on the East Portico of the U. S. Capitol. The new President and his family surprised the spectators by walking from the Capitol to the White House after the ceremony.x
On This Date In 1980 In a letter to the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) and a television interview, U.S. President Jimmy Carter proposed that the 1980 Summer Olympics be moved from the planned host city, Moscow, if the Soviet Union failed to withdraw its troops from Afghanistan within a month. After the International Olympic Committee (IOC) denied Carter’s request, the USOC later voted to boycott the Moscow games, a decision that Carter announced on March 21, 1980.
On This Date In 1980 Super Bowl XIV was played at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion following the 1979 regular season. Aided by two touchdowns in the fourth quarter, the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Pittsburgh Steelers (15-4) defeated the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Los Angeles Rams (11-8), 31–19, to win their fourth Super Bowl in team history. This game was the first Super Bowl (and the only one until Super Bowl XLI) to feature two pre-expansion era (pre-1960) teams. It was also the first time that a team with nine wins or fewer reached the Super Bowl, and the last such occurrence until Super Bowl XLIII. The Rams were also the first “host” team to participate in the Super Bowl (although the game was not in their home stadium, the Rams were the official hosts). Despite throwing three interceptions, Steelers quarterback Terry Bradshaw was named the game's MVP by completing 14 of 21 passes for 309 yards and two touchdowns.
On This Date In 1981 The first inauguration of Ronald Reagan as the 40th President of the United States was held. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of Ronald Reagan as President and George H. W. Bush as Vice President. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger administered the Oath of office. The inauguration was the first to be held on the West Front of the United States Capitol Building. The decision to move the ceremonies from the East Front was made in June 1980 by the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. This was done partly to save money, since the West Front's steps could be used as a base for the ceremonial platform, obviating the need to construct one. Another factor was the ability of the facing National Mall to accommodate more spectators. Reagan's inaugural address was 2,452 words long. It utilized the vista offered by the West Front, invoking the symbolism of the Presidential memorials and Arlington National Cemetery in the distance. As Reagan was giving the speech, 52 Americans held hostage in Iran for the previous 444 days were released.
On This Date In 1983 “Pyromania,” the third studio album by British rock band Def Leppard, was released. It featured new guitarist Phil Collen and was produced by Robert John “Mutt” Lange. The album charted at number 2 on the Billboard 200 and number 18 on the UK Albums Chart.
On This Date In 1985 President Ronald Wilson Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time, in a private ceremony at the White House. Because January 20 fell on a Sunday, a public celebration was not held but took place in the Capitol Rotunda the following day. January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D.C.; due to poor weather conditions, inaugural celebrations were held inside the Capitol.
On This Date In 1985 Super Bowl XIX was played at Stanford Stadium, on the campus of Stanford University in Stanford, California, to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion following the 1984 regular season. The National Football Conference (NFC) champion San Francisco 49ers (18-1) defeated the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Miami Dolphins (16-3), 38–16, to win their second Super Bowl.
On This Date In 1989 The 200th anniversary of the United States Presidency was observed as George H. W. Bush took the executive oath on the same Bible George Washington used in 1789. The ceremony occurred on a platform on the terrace of the West Front of the Capitol, and the oath of office was administered by Chief Justice William Rehnquist. After the ceremony, the President and Mrs. Bush led the inaugural parade from the Capitol to the White House, walking along several blocks of Pennsylvania Avenue to greet the spectators.
On This Date In 1993 The first inauguration of William J. Clinton as the 42nd President of the United States took place. The inauguration marked the beginning of the first four-year term of Bill Clinton as President and Al Gore as Vice President. Chief Justice William Rehnquist administered the Oath of office.
On This Date In 1993 Audrey Hepburn (May 4, 1929 – January 20, 1993), British-Dutch actress and humanitarian, and remembered as a film and fashion icon of the twentieth century, died in her sleep of appendiceal cancer at her home in Tolochenaz, Vaud, Switzerland. After her death, Gregory Peck went on camera and tearfully recited her favourite poem, “Unending Love” by Rabindranath Tagore. Funeral services were held at the village church of Tolochenaz, Switzerland, on January 24. Maurice Eindiguer, the same pastor who wed Hepburn and Mel Ferrer and baptized her son Sean in 1960, presided over her funeral. The same day as her funeral, Hepburn was interred at the Tolochenaz Cemetery, a small cemetery that sits atop a hill overlooking the village.
On This Date In 1996 Yasser Arafat was elected president of the Palestinian National Council with 88.1 percent of the popular vote, becoming the first democratically elected leader of the Palestinian people in history.
On This Date In 1997 The second inauguration of Bill Clinton as the 42nd President of the United States took place. The inauguration marked the beginning of the second four-year term of Bill Clinton as President and Al Gore as Vice President, and marked the last inauguration of the 20th century . Chief Justice William Rehnquist administered the Oath of office.
On This Date In 2001 Outgoing president Bill Clinton issued 141 pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office. Most of the controversy regarding this activity surrounded Marc Rich and allegations that Hillary Clinton's brother, Hugh Rodham, accepted payments in return for influencing the president's decision-making regarding the pardons. Some of Clinton's pardons remain a point of controversy. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20010120/aponline135239_000.htm
On This Date In 2001 The first inauguration of George W. Bush as the 43rd President of the United States took place. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of George W. Bush as President and Dick Cheney as Vice President. Chief Justice William Rehnquist administered the Oath of office at 12:01 PM. An estimated 300,000 people attended the swearing-in ceremony.
On This Date In 2005 The second inauguration of George W. Bush as the 43rd President of the United States took place. The inauguration marked the beginning of the second term of George W. Bush as President and Dick Cheney as Vice President. Ailing Chief Justice William Rehnquist administered the Oath of office. Attendance at the inauguration has been reported as being around 100,000, 300,000 or 400,000. As the first presidential inauguration after the September 11 attacks, security was tighter than previous ceremonies. The inaugural parade route as well as other related sites were guarded by 13,000 police and soldiers, in addition to aerial patrols by helicopter and fighter aircraft and rooftop sharpshooters. In downtown Washington, a 100 square block area was closed to traffic. Still, after the inaugural address, the supporting crowd was so friendly, Bush and first lady Laura Bush got out of their bullet-proof limousine and walked part of the route.
On This Date In 2007 Hillary Clinton, wife of former U.S. President Bill Clinton, and then-Senator of New York, announced that she was forming an exploratory committee for president, thereby launching a bid to become the first female chief executive of the United States. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/01/20/clinton.announcement/index.html
On This Date In 2009 The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States took place. The inauguration, which set a record attendance for any event held in Washington, D.C., marked the commencement of the four-year term of Barack Obama as President and Joe Biden as Vice President. Based on the combined attendance numbers, television viewership, and Internet traffic, it was among the most observed events ever by the global audience.
On This Date In 2009 Senator Edward M. Kennedy attended Barack Obama's presidential inauguration in Washington, but then suffered a seizure at the luncheon immediately afterward. He was taken via wheelchair from the Capitol building and then by ambulance to Washington Hospital Center. The following morning, he was released from the hospital to his home in Washington, as doctors attributed the episode to “simple fatigue.”
On This Date In 2010 The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude 5.9 aftershock rattled Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the strongest since the original 7.0-magnitude quake struck eight days prior, on January 12. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/01/20/haiti.earthquake/
On This Date In 2011 U.S. Federal authorities orchestrated one of the biggest Mafia takedowns in FBI history, charging 127 suspected mobsters and associates in the Northeast with murders, extortion and other crimes spanning decades. Past investigations have resulted in strategic strikes aimed at crippling individual crime families. This time, authorities used a shotgun approach, with some 800 federal agents and police officers making scores of simultaneous arrests stemming from different mob investigations in New York, New Jersey and Rhode Island. http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2011/January/11-ag-077.html
Hat tip to any included contributing sources, along with:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page , http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history , http://timelines.com/ , http://www.on-this-day.com/
Happy Birthday Slim Whitman (1924), Buzz Aldrin (1930), Eric Stewart (1945), Paul Stanley (1952), Lorenzo Lamas (1958), James Denton (1963), John Michael Montgomery (1965), Rainn Wilson (1966), and Skeet Ulrich (1970).
RIP Andre-Marie Ampere (1775 – 1836), Anson Jones (1798 – 1858), George Burns (1896 – 1996), Carlotta Monti (1907 – 1993), Joy Adamson (1910 – 1980), Federico Fellini (1920 – 1993), DeForest Kelley (1920 – 1999), Patricia Neal (1926 – 2010), and Audrey Hepburn (1929 – 1993).
Service is never a simple act; it's about sacrifice for others and about accomplishment for ourselves, about reaching out, one person to another, about all our choices gathered together as a country to reach across all our divides. George Bush
Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead
The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the republican model of government are justly considered ... deeply, ... finally, staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people. George Washington
Everyone can be great because anyone can serve. You don't have to have a college degree to serve. You don't even have to make your subject and your verb agree to serve... You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love... Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I know in my heart that man is good. That what is right will always eventually triumph. And there's purpose and worth to each and every life. Ronald Reagan
If you're afraid of the future, then get out of the way, stand aside. The people of this country are ready to move again. Ronald Reagan
Courtesy YouTube et al
Take a breathtaking journey into the future, five billion years from now, to see the ultimate fate of the Solar System. This gem from HubbleCast showcases stunning Hubble imagery of the death throes of Sun-like stars. The wreckage of these dying stars form the building blocks of new generations of stars.
Our panel has chosen sixty Space Lab finalists from thousands of entries. We need your help deciding who it will be. Vote to put the experiment you like into space. You can vote on each experiment once a day. http://www.youtube.com/user/spacelab
Etta James, the feisty R&B singer whose raw, passionate vocals made the love ballad "At Last" an enduring anthem, has died. James suffered from dementia, kidney problems and leukemia. The announcement: http://music.msn.com/music/article.aspx?news=697270&ocid=ansent11
The future is not a result of choices among alternative paths offered by the present, but a place that is created--created first in the mind and will, created next in activity. The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating. The paths are not to be found, but made, and the activity of making them, changes both the maker and the destination. John Schaar